Appear on June 4th, 2014 | by Julian Cox
June 4th, 2014 by Julian Cox
Critical. Re: Hydrogen and Ammunition Corpuscle Vehicles/Environment.
This letter deals with the three axiological flaws in the advance of Hydrogen and Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage that seeks to accomplishment attainable affair for the ambiance and to activate a greatly counterproductive use of attainable funds in paving the way for carbon-intensive deposit fuels to admission the bazaar for renewable energy:
If you accept not yet been apparent to authoritative-looking blooming business for hydrogen and ammunition corpuscle vehicles, you will be.
Here is a heads-up on some adumbrative samples:
California Ammunition Corpuscle Partnership.
“The well-to-wheels letters appearance that hydrogen fabricated from accustomed gas and acclimated in a ammunition corpuscle agent reduces greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 55%-65% compared to gasoline acclimated in a accepted vehicle, and by about 40% compared to gasoline in a amalgam engine.”
California Air Assets Board
“As aught discharge cartage (ZEVs), hydrogen ammunition beef comedy a cogent role in abbreviation California’s greenhouse gas and billow emissions. The California Air Assets Board’s best contempo Advanced Apple-pie Cars Program builds aloft the ZEV Regulation in abode back 1990, and rapidly increases numbers of ZEV technologies, such as hydrogen ammunition corpuscle and array electric vehicles. By mid-century, 87% of cars on the alley will allegation to be abounding ZEVs. This will abode California on a aisle to abbreviation greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, a ambition adopted by abounding nations and believed all-important to balance altitude temperature.”
US Ecology Aegis Agency
“Producing the hydrogen to adeptness FCVs can accomplish GHGs, depending on the assembly method, but abounding beneath than that emitted by accepted gasoline and agent vehicles.”
Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A, Inc.
“Be a allotment of the aing anarchy in adequate mobility: The Toyota Ammunition Corpuscle Agent (FCV). A alive acquaintance that’s on par with a gasoline engine, but afterwards any CO2 emissions.”
Hyundai Motor America, marketers of the Tucson Ammunition Cell
“Well-to-wheel emissions for hydrogen cartage sourced from accustomed gas are lower than array electric vehicles, and beneath than bisected of agnate gasoline agent emissions.”
Mercedes Benz, marketers of the B-Class F-Cell
“Mercedes-Benz is alive adamantine to accouter the adeptness of the best abounding aspect in the accepted universe. In added words, zero-emission hydrogen power.”
“0.0 emissions that agency it is airy to the environment.”
American Honda Motor Co., Inc.
“And accomplish no mistake—the FCX Clarity FCEV is an electric car. The ammunition corpuscle combines hydrogen with oxygen to accomplish electricity. The electricity again admiral the electric motor, which in about-face propels the vehicle. Baptize is the alone byproduct the FCX Clarity FCEV leaves behind.”
Any botheration with these statements?
They are actually and absolutely false.
There are no such ecology allowances attributable to hydrogen either now or in any foreseeable approaching bread-and-er reality. On the contrary, hydrogen is a gross threat to efforts to accouterment emissions as a aftereffect of public behavior based on a apocryphal ecology premise and by grossly misleading advertising accumulated with incentives targeting consumers best at accident of bamboozlement by messaging citation the advancement of environmental concerns as a value proposition.
It would be amiss to advance afterwards acknowledging the afterward exceptions to the rule:
The Ford Motor Company Inc.
“Currently, the best advanced activity is a broadcast [on-site] accustomed gas beef reforming process. However, back FCVs are run on hydrogen adapted from accustomed gas application this process, they do not accommodate cogent ecology allowances on a well-to-wheels base (due to GHG emissions from the accustomed gas about-face process).”
Tesla Motors Inc, Elon Musk. Transcript from minute 29:20: “Fuel Corpuscle is so bullshit, it’s a amount of rubbish. The alone acumen they do ammunition corpuscle is because…, they don’t absolutely accept it, it’s article that they can…, it is like a business affair – but the absoluteness is that if you took a ammunition corpuscle agent and you booty the best case for a ammunition corpuscle agent in acceding of the accumulation and aggregate appropriate to go a accurate ambit as able-bodied as the amount of the ammunition corpuscle system, and again you know, if you took the best case of that, it does not alike according the accepted accompaniment of the art of lithium ion batteries and so there is no way for it to become a applicable technology.”
Technically and admitting the attainable language, Musk is correct. FCVs cannot be accepted to activity acute amount or performance benefits to consumers. Nevertheless Hydrogen Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage are afterwards according back it comes to misdirection and as a apparatus for extracting attainable funds from admiral alone too attainable to be blind-sided by pseudo-science and the lobbying of vested interests in a nation disturbing to triage the amount of adopted oil and customer ecology apropos while anew ample with abounding bargain Accustomed Gas from hydraulic fracturing of shales. It is aloof that the apocryphal affiance of hydrogen is such a alarming bamboozlement in ecology acceding that it cannot be accustomed to go undetected at the eleventh hour for the ambiance and on the eve of genuine advance with accompanying breach throughs in solar activity costs and Electric Cartage able of acclamation the mid market.
If it were not for the ample efforts to point to a baptize breath bankrupt instead of the data, the afterward would be accepted adeptness already:
Hydrogen Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage are marketed as blooming to environmentalists and activity makers by allegory to a 23 mpg gasoline vehicle. A 23 mpg gasoline agent is the 2014 EPA boilerplate gas milage beyond all new vehicles. A 23 mpg is additionally a ‘GREET 1b’ analogue of a ‘mid sized ancestors car [of boilerplate age of fleet]’. What a 23 mpg agent is absolutely not is a reasonable criterion to analyze with a 2014 / 2015 Hydrogen Ammunition Corpuscle Vehicle. Toyota for archetype produces a 23 mpg 2014 mid sized ancestors vehicle: The Lexus GS 350 a 3.5 liter V6 at 306 bhp . There is no archetype of a 23 mpg Toyota branded sedan, for archetype the 3.5 liter Toyota Camry alone gets 268 hp and as a aftereffect has an EPA accumulated gas milage amount of 25 mpg.
The afterward blueprint accordingly references the 23 mpg EPA Lexus and compares it to array of avant-garde technology choices from Ammunition Corpuscle Vehicles, Diesel, Gasoline and Gasoline-Hybrids to Constituent Hybrids and authentic Array Electric Vehicles. Horsepower is apparent in red and WTW mpg agnate emissions is apparent in blue. The blooming confined are emissions abridgement and amethyst is achievement abridgement vs the 23 mpg gasoline vehicle. Negative achievement abridgement denotes achievement admission compared to the 23 mpg vehicle. The Y arbor gives the absolute cardinal for all confined be it a allotment or a cardinal in MPGp (miles per gasoline gallon agnate able-bodied to caster pollution) or agent adeptness in bhp.
A Closer Attending at Anon Comparable Agent Technologies afterwards the advertence to either the approximate US agile boilerplate or absolute old or absolute aerial adeptness agent technologies. This blueprint references the Toyota Prius as an archetype of a accepted low-emissions technology agent of agnate deposit ammunition / amalgam architectonics to every FCV and the aforementioned adeptness achievement except for the Toyota 2015 FCV which at 90KW (120.6hp) is ten percent beneath powerful.
Fact: The EPA activated 2014 134hp Toyota Prius Gasoline Amalgam offers a 60% GHG WTW emissions abridgement verses the Boilerplate Ammunition Corpuscle Agent activated by the absolute DOE NREL continued appellation study.
Clearly the ‘about 40% WTW emissions abridgement allegedly claimed for Hydrogen FCV technology‘ vs Gasoline Amalgam Agent technology annual fabricated by the California Ammunition Corpuscle Partnership (and mirrored in business materials) is absolutely at allowance with official real-world data. One of the sleights of duke acclimated in breeding apocryphal comparisons is to accommodate an abstract amount for carbon brand of accurate propulsion batteries acquired from an out-dated (2006) Argonne National Labs report. EV batteries on any cogent calibration are now accepted to be produced and planned for assembly afterwards a cogent carbon brand and with absolute ample aeon life, added use in storage and end of activity recyclability.
Will hydrogen additionally become cleaner over time? No. EVs and FCVs are a angle in the road. One leads to renewables attributable to absolute affinity and the added leads to accustomed gas. Accustomed gas is a bargain and abounding adeptness that comes out of the arena with activity abeyant for self-disassembly into hydrogen and CO2. Beef methane reforming is economically incontestable as a adjustment of hydrogen assembly by apple-pie but added circuitous methods.
Hydrogen is a deposit fuel. 95% of US assembly is from accustomed gas, best of the from the gasification of atramentous and it will not change for the better.
Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A, Inc. Quote: “A cleaner, Renewable Ammunition Source. It’s simple science. Our ammunition beef accomplish electricity from hydrogen, a ammunition that can be produced from a array of renewable sources like solar and wind power.”
Technically so can gasoline. However as a association we do not use renewable activity to chemically re-assemble gasoline from the bankrupt effluvium of gasoline cartage (nor would we alike if we had a adequate and abounding adeptness of concentrated fumes). It is for absolutely the aforementioned acumen that we will not as a association electrolyze H2o (the bankrupt of ammunition cells) alike admitting abounding baptize is generally available. The activity adeptness barrier is too aerial and electricity is too admired to decay on about the un-burning the blaze articles of added fuels. Appropriately on any allusive scale the production of hydrogen from baptize cannot anytime attempt in the attainable bazaar with an affluence of energetic fuels absolute from the ground. The beyond the scale, the greater the allotment of deposit ammunition use in the assembly of hydrogen.
It is simple economics as illustrated in the afterward chart.
The abundant about-face accident from electricity to actinic fuels acutely impacts the ambit that can be travelled per unit of activity depending on source. The atomic amount alleyway per mile for FCVs is so arresting in favor of accustomed gas against electricity from any antecedent as to guarantee steam reforming trumps electrolysis, afterwards CO2 sequestering and with no acumen for the accustomed gas industry to abhorrence amount per mile antagonism from renewables. Accordingly should FCVs be adopted, accustomed gas will abound economically continued into the future, and continued afterwards the date by which EVs could be operated economically on 100% apple-pie renewables on a ample calibration to the exclusion of deposit fuels.
This is aggregate the clairvoyant needs to apperceive about why the deposit ammunition and auto industries are pushing so adamantine for hydrogen despite, no in actuality because it makes no ecology sense.
Hydrogen merely represents an economic moat for the deposit ammunition cachet quo against renewables:
It is important for any actuality anxious with ecology aegis or artlessly adulatory to abstain actuality mislead as a consumer, an investor, an editor or a attainable servant, to be alert of able-bodied adjourned and acutely boundless abusage of about attainable abstracts apropos Hydrogen assembly and Hydrogen Ammunition Corpuscle Vehicles. Misrepresentation exists beyond vested interests and government agencies to acrylic a annual of this technology as an asset to all-around efforts to abate blooming abode gas emissions. Nothing could be added from the truth. Hydrogen is bound by the force of economics to accustomed gas and accustomed gas is added bound by the aforementioned force to the convenance of on-shore hydraulic fracturing of shales. Hydrogen is the Hydro in deposit HydroCarbons and appropriately hydrogen cannot be extracted from the arena afterwards accompanying extracting and administration of carbon as CO2. Re-Capturing the carbon (sequestering CO2) costs about the aforementioned as the consistent hydrogen ammunition and appropriately it is artlessly appear to the atmosphere.
Hydrogen represents the absolute of deposit ammunition adorning which after-effects in the best hidden able-bodied to catchbasin emissions of any deposit ammunition and the best all-embracing GHG emissions per assemblage of advantageous energy. The activity is decidedly added carbon accelerated per assemblage of activity than coal. Mistaking deposit hydrogen from the hydraulic fracturing of shales for an environmentally adequate activity alleyway threatens to animate activity behavior that will adulterate and potentially derail all-around efforts to head-off altitude change due to the accident of breach advance and focus from agent technologies that are economically accordant with renewable energy. Toyota for example, currently the world’s bigger auto maker is the best alive adherent of antechamber groups in the US and all-embracing in blame for hydrogen while it has tragically alone its own efforts to aftermath EVs.
In California, the CARB ZEV authorization permits deposit ammunition cartage (if the deposit ammunition is hydrogen) to authorize instead of EVs while the copious blooming abode gas emissions to aftermath hydrogen for them are appear in California aloof bottomward the alley at Air Articles Inc., or at the gas base instead of on the street. It is accordingly afire from an ecology angle that abashing on this affair is brought rapidly to a abounding stop. There is no acumen to brainstorm that a approaching 306hp FCV will not adulterate far added than the current 306hp gasoline V6 Lexus back the boilerplate FCV activated by NREL already produces 73.5% of the emissions with beneath than bisected of the power.
This certificate contains basal estimation (the abstracts is acquired wherever attainable anon from official EPA and NREL records). It is advised to accommodate a bright and anon attainable appearance of that abstracts to serve a attainable appropriate to apperceive it (and to accept it) apparent from apocryphal comparisons and pseudo-science and from political or business circuit absorbed on banishment accustomed gas into the blooming activity economy.
The abstracts demonstrates that unless a customer wishes to acquirement a low achievement agent to alter a absolute old, a absolute ample or absolute a aerial achievement vehicle, Hydrogen FCVs activity no net Blooming Abode Gas reductions against any added low achievement vehicle. In actuality the affliction ecology achievement of any low achievement agent beneath 200 hp discussed actuality was and is the boilerplate official Ammunition Corpuscle Agent NREL assay accountable at 356g CO2e/mile. Replacing an EV, PHEV, HEV (or alike a small-engined agent or gasoline vehicle) with this FCV will represent an ecology set-back. This is a actuality that cannot accept able either Mercedes (Daimler) and Hyundai-Kia who were both NREL assay capacity alongside Ford and GM, BP, Shell and Chevron. Of this group, alone Ford, to their credit, has about declared that there is no cogent ecology annual to Ammunition Corpuscle Agent Technology – all be it at the basal of a web folio discussing the claim of arrest altitude change.
The economically assured acumen why hydrogen is of no annual in arrest GHG emissions is that Hydrogen produced by the best able bartering avenue emits a minimum of 14.34Kg CO2e against 11.13Kg CO2e for a US gallon of Gasoline (of which 13.2Kg is absolute CO2 gas in the case of Hydrogen). This best case is not alike the archetypal case attributable to difficulties in alteration hydrogen in bulk. Appropriately the on-site (distributed) assembly from accustomed gas at fueling stations that suffers bargain efficiencies of scale. The real-world abstracts attests to the actuality that when installed in a amalgam electric agent the real-world activity about-face adeptness is bereft to affected the added GHG discharge acuteness of hydrogen production.
Unlike the optimal bread-and-er synergy of constituent EVs and Renewables, the economics of hydrogen acerb prevents renewables from advancing to adeptness an FCV agile either now or in the future. Accustomed gas is no arch to a bigger future. In the case of FCVs it is an bread-and-er barrier to renewables.
Hydrogen from Accustomed Gas is currently d a considerable blackmail in acceding of breach Accompaniment and Federal budgets evidently advised for ecology advance to deposit ammunition based hydrogen basement area at best absolute ample amounts of attainable funds are at accident of activity to decay d consumers do adios low-performance FCVs. At affliction attainable funds will activate the Accustomed Gas industry and Auto Industry to columnist for extensive delays in EV developments and alike antechamber for finer the society-wide derailment of advance appear renewable activity in transportation. 90% of the Californian Activity Commission hydrogen basement annual has been appropriate for non-sequestered deposit fuel production of Hydrogen in acknowledgment for lip annual of approaching ecology allowances that can never be forthcoming. Meanwhile marketers of FCVs actively and aboveboard ambition Electric Cartage (not gasoline or agent vehicles) with claims of adequate admission to bargain blooming abode gas emissions agnate to a pure Electric Vehicle. Claims that are artlessly not true.
Hydrogen Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage and their basement are a case in which the amount to the abounding should conceivably be advised to outweigh the annual to the few. With some ample urgency.
Naturally there is absurd to be a bazaar for Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage alfresco the demographic of environmentally acquainted consumers targeted and bamboozled by apocryphal advertising. In that attention I assurance this certificate comes to the defence of the widest attainable admirers as it contains basic customer education.
Of advance the best absolute activity environmentally anxious consumers can and allegation booty in adjustment to ahead the displacement of solar and wind energy in busline by fracked accustomed gas is artlessly to debris to charter or to buy a Ammunition Corpuscle Agent behindhand of incentives or attainable funds ashen on hydrogen infrastructure. Naturally it would be bigger for CARB to ahead such a acknowledgment and to resume the role of forcing the focus of auto makers in the administration of added effective instead of annihilative approaches to the environment.
For capacity of attainable accord and ascribe into California Activity Commission programs including the Alternative and Renewable Ammunition and Agent Technology Program (ARFVTP) Advance Plan, a acquaintance is Alana Mathews, Attainable Advisor, at 916-654-4489.
To dig added or if the clairvoyant is technically absent and absorbed to bifold assay the logic, there are some attainable antecedent capacity of the calculations and accompanying addendum and references that resulted in the advice above.
For those alien with hydrogen production, actuality is a awful recommended abrupt and attainable click-through animation.
These are the footfall by footfall able-bodied to caster calculations for beef methane reforming: Wellhead emissions: (2.450Kg) SMR furnace: (3.704Kg) SMR process: (5.072) Filigree discharge for compression: (1.175Kg). Subtotal 12.401 Kg CO2 per Kg of Hydrogen, busline (0.8Kg). Subtotal 13.2Kg CO2.
This is cantankerous arrested with absolute Accustomed Gas inputs of 3.629 Kg CH4 per Kg Hydrogen apery a 66% amount of able-bodied to artefact activity adeptness (using a accepted 50MJ/Kg amount for NG and a accepted 120 MJ/Kg amount for H2, both LHV numbers). To complete the annual requires an adequate estimated amount for transport. Abstracts basic at Argonne National Laboratory and republished in graphical anatomy by hydrogen ammunition corpuscle antechamber accumulation Californian Ammunition Corpuscle Partnership admission at 62% adeptness across-the-board of transportation. Appropriately 0.66/0.62 * 12.4 = 13.2Kg CO2 / Kg Hydrogen.
EPA estimated CH4 emissions: 1.5% = 0.054435 Kg * GWP (21) = 1.1431Kg CO2e
Key Number: Assembly of Hydrogen = 14.34 Kg CO2e Blooming Abode Gas Emissions.
This cardinal takes into application alone absolute CO2 gas and EPA estimated CH4 emissions and EPA estimated GHG authority of CH4.
Note also, this is a best case amount from all-embracing automated SMR (steam methane reforming) which allowances from efficiencies of scale. According to the NREL continued appellation ammunition corpuscle agent abstraction on-site assembly (at the refueling station) is generally deployed. Ford, a actor in the NREL abstraction refers to it as broadcast accustomed gas beef reforming. The NREL abstracts are included in the comparisons above.
As an accurate alien anatomy of advertence this is the NREL able-bodied to caster calculation. Note for this assay I will stick with my added acceptable 14.34 Kg CO2e/ Kg for Hydrogen in adjustment to invalidate any possible criticism on annual of bias.
For Gasoline adequation the aforementioned NREL abstraction gives us a amount of 484g CO2 /mile for a 23 mpg vehicle. 23*484 = 11,132g We can cantankerous assay this amount with a DOE abstraction which shows 450g CO2 per mile for a 25mpg gasoline vehicle. 25/23 * 450 = 489g. The abstracts are in accomplished acceding (within 1%). 484g CO2e / mile = 23 mpg for gasoline.
Well To Caster Gasoline emissions are 11.132 Kg CO2 for the assembly and afire of 1 Gallon of Gasoline.
The EPA accepted amount for CO2e tailpipe emissions per gallon of gasoline is 8.887Kg CO2. 25.26% of the GHG emissions are hidden in refinery and carriage processes for a absolute of 11.132 Kg. The 14.34 Kg CO2e for Hydrogen emissions are 100% hidden.
Key numbers: For the aforementioned activity (1 gal gas : 1 Kg H2) Absolute Hydrogen CO2e emissions are 28.8% added communicable than gasoline ammunition (in about-face the algebraic is 77.6% as apple-pie as gasoline fuel).
Key number: Because Hydrogen pollutes added than gasoline for the aforementioned activity it is alone attainable to go 0.776 (77.6%) of the ambit apparent in Afar per Kg Hydrogen compared with afar per US gallon.
To analyze Agent cartage with gasoline, it is attainable to locate abstracts of 14.2g able-bodied to catchbasin : 74.1g agitation accretion 88.3g (per MJ of activity content). The hidden CO2 emissions for Agent are an added 19% on top of tailpipe CO2 emissions.
For electric adequation to aftermath the aforementioned 11.132Kg CO2 as a gallon of gasoline there are appear abstracts attainable for CO2 per KWh.
US Boilerplate Filigree (IPCC) is 0.610 Kg CO2e per KWh. 11.132/0.610 = 18.249 KWh.
PG&E in California is 0.524lb = 0.238 Kg CO2e per KWh. 11.132/0.238 = 46.773 KWh.
Norway’s National Filigree (IPCC): 0.003Kg CO2e per KWh. 11.132/0.003 = 3710.67 KWh.
Now we can booty a adamantine attending at a sample of analogously d cartage including Ammunition Corpuscle Agent and additionally attending at both agnate and absolute abounding added able PHEVs and EVs.
MPGp authentic as afar per gasoline gallon agnate able-bodied to caster CO2e pollution.
Hyundai ix35 Tucson FCV 134hp (265mi/5.64Kg) 47 afar per Kg H2 = 36.48 MPGp
Hyundai ix35 Tucson 1.6 135hp 35mpg (11132g / 318.51 g/mi wtw ) = 34.95 MPGp
Cross assay 158 g/km / 0.621371 mi / Km = 254.28 g/mi * 1.2526 = 318.51g wtw
Hyundai ix35 Tucson 2.0 CRDi 148hp Agent ww 293.41g/mi wtw = 37.93 MPGp
Hyundai ix35 Tucson 1.7 CRDi 117hp Diesel EU 266.56 g/mi wtw = 41.76 MPGp
Mercedes B Class 134hp F-Cell FCV 52 afar per Kg H2 EPA = 40.36 MPGp
Mercedes B Class 120hp B180 1.6 gasoline 269.47 g/mi wtw = 38.44 MPGp
Mercedes B Class 136hp B-200 Agent 64.2mpg 220.54 g/mi wtw = 50.47 MPGp
Honda FCX Clarity 134hp FCV 60 afar per Kg H2 EPA = 46.58 MPGp
Honda Accord Gasoline Amalgam 196hp 47mpg EPA = 47.00 MPGp
Honda Civic 1.6-litre i-DTEC Diesel 118hp 180.26 g/mi wtw = 61.75 MPGp
Toyota 2015 90KW/120.6 hp FCV 312.5 miles/5Kg H2 (best appraisal from Toyota PR material) = 48.51 MPGp
Toyota Prius gasoline Amalgam 1.8 134hp 50mpg EPA = 50.00 MPGp
Toyota Avensis Tourer 2.0 D-4D 124hp Diesel 230.13 g/mi wtw = 48.37 MPGp
Tesla Model S P85 416hp 38 KWh / 100 mile EPA (Note: The EPA amount of 380Wh/mile includes an advancing appraisal for charging losses based on a babyish almost low-efficiency 3.3KW charger). From the fueleconomy.gov site: Array and array charger adeptness are affected to absolute 81% (roughly 90% each) based in allotment on estimates from appear studies (Chae et. al., 2011; Gautam et. al., 2011).
Tesla Model S P85 US Filigree Boilerplate 18.249 / 0.380 = 48.02 MPGp
Tesla Model S P85 California PG&E 46.773 / 0.380 = 123.09 MPGp
Tesla Model S P85 Norway Filigree 3710.67 / 0.380 = 9,764.92 MPGp
Chevrolet Spark EV 28 KWh / 100 mile EPA. (Incorporates EPA accepted charging losses). This is a 100KW (134hp) EV, which provides absolute allegory with about 100KW (134hp) FCVs.
Chevrolet Spark EV US Filigree Boilerplate 18.249 / 0.280 = 65.18 MPGp
Chevrolet Spark EV California PG&E 46.773 / 0.280 = 167.05 MPGp
Chevrolet Spark EV Norway Filigree 3710.67 / 0.280 = *13,252.39 MPGp
Honda Accord Plug In Hybrid195hp EPA = 115 MPGp
“The boilerplate WTW greenhouse gas emissions appraisal for the Learning Demonstration agile operating on hydrogen produced from on-site accustomed gas about-face was 356 g CO2-eq/mile, and the everyman WTW GHG emissions appraisal for on-site accustomed gas about-face was 237 g CO2-eq/mile.”
51% is accustomed as as follows: 237/484 = 49% appropriately 51% beneath emissions than 100%.
100% of what exactly?
A 23 mpg gasoline vehicle. (11132g / 484 = 23 MPGp )
The Bread-and-er Determinacy of Accustomed Gas. Area does the hydrogen artery lead?
While absolute affinity with renewable electricity acerb favors a continuing trend appear an emissions-free busline in the case of Electric Vehicles, actinic activity for transportation, hydrogen included, accordingly favors the economics of actinic feedstocks. According to H2USA ‘Recent development of the United States’ amazing shale gas assets [is] allowance to abate the costs of bearing hydrogen and operating hydrogen ammunition cells’. Methane from accustomed gas contains the activity abeyant for self-disassembly into Hydrogen and CO2 via the activity of beef methane reforming and as a aftereffect it is the simplest, cheapest and best economically incontestable antecedent of hydrogen, that is best able to see off allusive antagonism from electrolysis, biofuels and waste-stream about-face – so continued as cartage are chemically and not electrically powered.
Some calculations to allegorize the bread-and-er specifics of FCV vs EV activity costs via renewable vs deposit ammunition pathways.
Miles travelled on 1KWh Electricity:
Using the EPA abstracts of 380 Wh/mile and 280 Wh/mile respectively, renewable activity offers 1/.38 or 2.63 afar for every 1 KWh of electricity in Tesla Model S P85 afterwards an advancing EPA appraisal of charging and array adeptness losses, and 1/.28 or 3.57 afar for an FCV-equivalent (100KW) EV. This should be bargain to 92.5% to annual for a fair 7.5% appraisal of filigree accident in the case of electricity from a alien renewable utility-scale source. Tesla Model S P85 2.43 afar per KWh. Chevy Spark EV 3.30 afar per KWh.
The aforementioned 1 KW of renewable activity (at 120 MJ = 54.65 KWh/Kg for hydrogen) afterwards 39% about-face losses in electrolysis and compression would backpack a 100KW (134hp) FCV 0.86 afar (47mpKg Hyundai Tucson FCV) or 1.25 afar (68.3 mpKg 90KW Toyota 2015 FCV).
Miles travelled on 1KWh Accustomed gas (LHV).
1 KWh of accustomed gas heating activity (1/13.1KWh/Kg LHV energy/3.629 Kg Ch4 per Kg Hydrogen) produces 0.021Kg of Hydrogen. This will booty a hydrogen FCV amid 0.987 afar (Hyundai) and 1.428 afar (Toyota).
The aforementioned 1 KWh of accustomed gas heating activity afterwards a archetypal 50% about-face accident in accustomed gas electricity bearing and administration will booty an EV, counting EPA charging loss, 1.32 afar (Tesla Model S P85 at 380Wh/mile) and 1.79 afar (100KW Chevy Spark EV at 280Wh/mile).
From these abstracts it is attainable to account axiological amount per mile bread-and-er break-even in either administration in three altered academic scenarios comparing a 100KW Chevy Spark EV to a 90KW 2015 Toyota FCV.
These numbers represent the blackmail airish by hydrogen to our generation’s bid for emissions chargeless and renewable powered transportation.
We are aural three to six years of it actuality cheaper to run an EV agile on account calibration solar than it is to adeptness an EV agile via accustomed gas. But with an artificially imposed civic best of FCVs, that ambition is at accident of actuality pushed out by about 12 years of added barricade in a deposit ammunition busline economy.
There are two bread-and-er altitude for these amount allegory scenarios to abide true:
These choices are of advance aural the address of the California Activity Commission and agnate bodies Nation advanced and World advanced at this moment. Whether or not to acquit the amount of access for accustomed gas to enter the blooming activity sector, and whether or not to appoint or to abandon the binding aloofness of CO2 during SMR as a attendant to entry.
Ultimately, the defining advantage for hydrogen produced by accustomed gas for Ammunition Corpuscle Cartage is the adeptness to adulterate while claiming to be green. It is not acceptable abundant that images of celebrities bubbler distilled bankrupt emissions sets the accepted of attainable apprenticeship on such a cardinal civic choice.
There are bigger choices.
Julian Cox has had career-long vocation focussed on the absolute aggregation of economics, energy, transportation, and affliction for the environment.
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